Chris G Richardson, PhD

Get the ANSS

The ANSS is available for download in both Microsoft Word and PDF formats. You can download a “research-ready” version, with the items and response scale already laid out for use, or a “content-only” version. All versions include scoring instructions.

To get the Research-ready PDF version, click here

To get the Content-only PDF version, click here

To get the Research-ready Word version, click here

To get the Content-only Word version, click here


The Adolescents’ Need to Smoke Scale

Based on your experiences with smoking, please indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with the following statements.

  1. Smoking helps me fit in at school
  2. Smoking makes me feel popular
  3. Smoking makes me look cool
  4. Giving cigarettes to friends makes me feel important
  5. Sharing cigarettes helps me feel closer to other people
  6. Smoking makes me look more mature
  7. I need to smoke when I am stressed
  8. I need to smoke when I am depressed
  9. I need to smoke to relax
  10. I need a cigarette to calm me down when I am angry
  11. I need to smoke when I am nervous
  12. I need to smoke when I am sad
  13. I need to keep my nicotine levels up
  14. My smoking is automatic – I don’t even think about it
  15. My body needs cigarettes to feel right
  16. I can function better after my first cigarette of the day
  17. My body craves cigarettes when I don’t smoke
  18. I feel panicked when I run out of cigarettes
  19. Even when I don’t have time for a whole cigarette, I manage to fit in a few drags
  20. I can concentrate better after a cigarette
  21. I find myself looking forward to my next cigarette
  22. I have strong cravings to smoke cigarettes
  23. I like the feeling of blowing out smoke
  24. Smoking makes things like having a pop or a coffee more enjoyable
  25. I like the taste of cigarettes
  26. I enjoy holding and handing cigarettes
  27. I enjoy the feeling of smoke in my lungs

Responses to the ANSS items are rated on the following scale:

  • Agree very strongly (6)
  • Agree strongly (5)
  • Agree (4)
  • Disgree (3)
  • Disagree strongly (2)
  • Disagree very strongly (1)

Scoring the ANSS

To obtain scores for the Social Dependence Subscale, sum items 1-6
To obtain scores for the Emotional Dependence Subscale, sum items 7-12
To obtain scores for the Physical Dependence Subscale, sum items 13-22
To obtain scores for the Sensory Dependence Subscale, sum items 23-27